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All About Tuners: A brief information and explanation
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ALL ABOUT TUNERS


SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class includes:

(1) Tuners (as defined in the Glossary). In function the tuner serves to select and pass or reject a particular frequency from a signal presented to the tuned circuit while attenuating or suppressing the passage or rejection of any other frequency that may be present in the signal. Generally the tuner consists of an inductor and capacitor, one or both of which may be variable, connected together in such a manner as to form a resonant circuit. For classification here, some means must be present in the tuner to vary the mean resonant frequency of the tuner from one frequency to another. The means present in the tuner should be something more than just the incidental showing of a generalized variable impedance element, but should be some means which is included in the circuit for the express purpose of making the resonant circuit variable over a range of frequencies. This means usually is in the form of a specific variable impedance device, such as an inductor or capacitor, the variation of which changes the electrical parameters of the circuit thus causing a shift in resonance of the circuit. The means may, however, consist of two or more impedances of fixed value which are adapted to be switched or substituted into or out of the resonant circuit. Excluded are wave filters which are closely analogous in that they are designed to pass or reject a single frequency or band of frequencies. Wave filters, generally, have no provisions or means which are particularly designed for and meant to vary the mean frequency of the filter during operation of the filter unit in a radio circuit. The wave filter may have "trimmer" means which is designed to "peak" the response of the filter, but these trimmers are not meant to be used in varying the resonance frequency of the filter during the operation of the filter in an electrical circuit such as, for example, a radio receiver. A wave filter having trimmer means is usually adjusted prior to the installing of the filter in an electrical circuit. The filter once adjusted is rarely, if ever, adjusted again unless the resonance characteristic of the filter requires some additional peaking. A circuit which has means to merely broaden or narrow the band which is being passed without varying or changing the means or center frequency to which the circuit is tuned does not amount to tuning but is considered a filter for classificaiton with wave transmission lines and networks (see References to Other Classes, below). However, a circuit which broadens or narrows the pass band and which also varies the mean or center frequency of a filter is considered a tuner.

(2) Included also are tuners with perfecting structure, such as a remote control circuit, a resonance indicator, tuner units with an electromagnetic operator, or tuners with automatic frequency centering circuits which are not otherwise classifiable.

(3) Also included are tuners combined with or incorporated in other structure and not elsewhere classifiable, such as a tuner combined with a tube socket or a special punched chassis. Also included are tuners combined with or incorporated in diverse nonelectrical devices and which combination is not classifiable elsewhere.

(4) Included also are tuners constructed as by the type of actuator used or from selected material so that the impedance values of the tuner changes particularly well in response to a particular condition or change in a particular condition such as current and/or voltage as, for example; a tuner using a saturable core type inductor; a tuner using a voltage responsive capacitor; or a tuner responsive to a magnetic field. Also included are tuners usually of the mechanically variable type together with a condition sensing actuator which changes the mechanical adjustment of the tuner in response to a condition or a change in condition. An example, of such a tuner is one having a heat sensitive actuator, or a tuner that is deformable as by compression by a weight or force.

(5) Subcombinations and components of tuners not otherwise classifiable, such as a resonance indicator, are classified in this class.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A. TUNERS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE:

Certain circuits or devices which may be considered tuners are not classified here. See References to Other Classes, below, for tuned resonance type wave filters which may be referred to as a tuner and the resistor-capacitor circuits such as bridged-T, double-T or Weir Bridge networks, for example, which are sometimes referred to as tuners. Also see the Search Class notes for tunable resonators of the distributed parameter type in which there are no lumped impedance elements present and where only a single resonator is used. The inclusion of a lumped impedance element in the resonant circuit or the coupling of two or more distributed parameter type units together to form a single tuner will result in classification in this class.

B. TUNERS COMBINED WITH OR INCORPORATED IN OTHER DEVICES:

As stated above, this class includes tuners combined with or incorporated in other structure not elsewhere classified. See Subclass References to the Current Class for tuners combined with various other devices and for tuners combined with or having shielding or housing means. The combination of a tuner with or in other structure or circuits is very common. A partial list of the classes and subclasses including this combination is given in References to Other Classes, below.

C. TUNER COMPONENTS AND SUBCOMBINATIONS:

Included in References to Other Classes, below, is the classification of the most common subject matter which may constitute a part or subcombination of a tuner.

D. DEVICES SIMULATING TUNERS:

See References to Other Classes, below, for wave filters, and resonators of the distributed parameter type.

E. MEASURING OR TESTING TUNERS

This class does not provide for either methods of or apparatus for measuring and testing tuners. If the measuring or testing is of a mechanical nature or not otherwise classified, classification is in Class 73, Measuring and Testing. See also the Search Notes in Class 73 for a more detailed field of search to measuring and testing devices and systems. If the measuring or testing involves determining the frequency or electrical properties of the tuner, classification is in Class 324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 600+.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4, for magnetic field responsive tuners.
5+, for condition responsive tuners.
12+, for saturable core type tuners.
39, for tuners combined with various other devices.
40, for a lumped resistor element connected in a tuned circuit.
85, for tuners combined with or having shielding or housing means.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

40, Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, for means for displaying information, the information that is displayed may be the position or channel to which a tuner is adjusted.
40, Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, appropriate subclasses for means to indicate the position or band to which a tuner is positioned. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
73, Measuring and Testing, for measuring and testing devices generally. See "Measuring or Testing tuners", above.
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclasses 10+ for machine elements and mechanisms particularly adapted for mechanically rotating one or more shafts of electronic tuning devices into desired angular positions.
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclasses 10+ for tuners by name only combined with shaft operators for radio tuners. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices" above).
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclasses 10+ for shaft operators which are particularly adapted for mechanically rotating one or more shafts of electronic tuning devices into desired angular positions, and subclasses 527+ for detents which are used in connection with fixed and movable members such as a tuner housing and shaft and which are especially adapted to check or arrest the motion of the movable element. Such detents are commonly used to properly position the tuner to some particular frequency or band of frequencies. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
84, Music, appropriate subclasses for musical devices that may use tuned circuits, especially subclasses 671 through 746for electrical tone generation by the use of tuned sound generators or resonators.
116, Signals and Indicators, subclasses 241+ , for indicators attached to or associated with some movable or adjustable radio tuning devices to indicate the movement, adjustment or position of such devices. Usually the indicator is of the movable-pointer and scale type.
174, Electricity: Conductors and Insulators, subclasses 35+ for shields and screens, per se, and subclasses 50+ for electrical boxes and housings, per se.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, appropriate subclasses for electrical make and break switch, per se, which may be used in a switch type tuner.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, appropriate subclasses for circuit makers and breakers of the switch type which may be used in combination with several inductors and/or capacitors to form a switch type tuner. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above).
219, Electric Heating, subclass 750 for microwave heating with tuned circuits.
219, Electric Heating, subclasses 600+ for inductive heating, note subclass 750 for microwave heating with tuned circuits, and subclasses 764+ for capacitive dielectric heating. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices").
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 250 for wave meters utilizing tuners as an element thereof. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
307, Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems, subclass 105 for electrical transmission or interconnection systems with harmonic filters which may be adjustable.
315, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems, subclasses 5.46+ for cathode-ray tube circuits in which the cathode ray passes through plural hollow distributed parameter devices that are tunable; subclasses 5.53+ for circuits in which the cathode ray passes through a tunable hollow distributed parameter device, and subclasses 39.55+ for distributed parameter resonator type magnetrons having variable tuning means.
315, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems, subclasses 5.46+ for a cathode-ray tube circuit which has plural hollow indicator or distributed parameter type inductive structure; subclasses 5.53+ for cathode ray tube circuits with tunable distributed parameter type inductive structure, and subclasses 39.55+ for combined load device or load device temperature modifying means and electrical magnetron circuit device structure of the variable tuned distributed parameter resonator type. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclass 16 for electrical motor power systems which are controlled from a distance by space transmitted electromagnetic or electrostatic energy and which are closely analogous to some remote controlled tuner circuits; subclass 460 for electrical motor power systems which have automatic and/or time-delay means which are responsive to sound, supersonic vibration or mechanical vibration, and subclass 480 for systems responsive to radiant energy.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclass 16 for a motor control system controlled by space transmitted electromagnetic or electrostatic energy, and subclass 510 for electrical motive power systems having an impedance controlled armature or primary circuit which comprises diverse impedances including an inductor and capacitor. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclass for a motor system which may be used to drive and control a tuner. Note especially subclasses 445+ for motor control systems which automatically start and/or stop at a particular point such as might be used with a remotely controlled television type tuner. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations")
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, subclass 78 for generator control systems which have plural impedances in the excitation circuit, the impedances forming a tuned circuit.
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, subclass 78 for generator control systems which have a tuned or resonant circuit in the excitation winding or control circuit. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above)
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 76.41+ for measuring, testing or sensing electricity, per se, by frequency comparison, and subclass 76.51 for measuring, testing or sensing electricity, per se, by a tuning step.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 76.41+ for circuits which measure, test or sense electricity, per se, by frequency comparison. The frequency comparison circuit usually has at least one or more tuned circuits. See also, subclass 76.51 of Class 324 for frequency testing systems in general utilizing tuning. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above)
327, Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems, subclasses 3+ for miscellaneous phase comparing circuits and subclasses 40+ for miscellaneous frequency comparing circuits, either of which may utilize a tuned circuit.
327, Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems, subclasses 3+ for miscellaneous phase comparing circuits and subclasses 40+ for miscellaneous frequency comparing circuits, either of which may utilize a tuned circuit. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
329, Demodulators, appropriate subclasses for demodulators with tuned input or indicator.
329, Demodulators, appropriate subclasses for demodulators with tuned input. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
330, Amplifiers, subclass 65 for structure of various amplifier elements such as a tuned circuit; subclasses 144+ for amplifier stages having a variable impedance element which is controlled by a separate control means; subclass 154 for cascaded amplifiers having a resonant circuit used in the interstage coupling network; subclasses 165+ for interstage coupling of the transformer type; subclasses 188+ for transformer coupled input circuits and subclasses 195+ for amplifiers having transformer coupling in the output circuit.
330, Amplifiers, subclass 154 , for cascaded amplifier stages having a transformer or resonant circuit in the interstage coup- ling, subclasses 157+ for interstage coupling networks which may include resonant circuits, subclasses 185+ for input coupling networks and subclasses 192+ for output coupling networks which may include resonant circuits. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
331, Oscillators, subclasses 1+ for oscillators having automatic frequency stabilization means using a phase or frequency sensing means; subclasses 96+ for oscillators with distributed parameter resonators; subclasses 117, 128, and 167+ for inductor-capacitor type oscillators, and subclasses 177+ for oscillators having frequency adjusting means.
331, Oscillators, appropriate subclasses, for oscillator circuits which contain a frequency or period determining element such as a resonator or tuning means. See subclasses 1+ for automatic frequency controlled oscillators, subclasses 167+ for oscillators having an L-C type tuned circuit, and subclasses 177+ for frequency adjusting means combined with the oscillator circuit. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above)
332, Modulators, subclasses 140 and 142+ for variable reactance tubes in a frequency modulator and subclass 175 for a variable tuned circuit in an amplitude modulator.
332, Modulators, appropriate subclasses for modulators using tuned circuits and particularly subclass 175 for a variable tuned circuit in an amplitude modulator. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
333, Wave Transmission Lines and Networks, appropriate subclasses for wave transmission lines and networks which may be resonant at one or more frequencies, especially subclasses 167+ for wave filter coupling networks and for tuned resonance type wave filters which may be referred to as a tuner. (Also found in these subclasses are the resistor-capacitor circuits such as bridged-T, double-T or Weir Bridge networks, for example, which are sometimes referred to as tuners); subclasses 235+ for variable resonators of the distributed parameter type, and subclasses 245+ for long line elements. (See "Tuners Classified Elsewhere" above).
333, Wave Transmission Lines and Networks, appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 167+ for wave filters in general having fixed center frequencies, particularly indented subclass 175 for resonant type wave filters, and see subclasses 219+ for tuners of the distributed parameter resonator type in which there are no lumped impedance elements present and where only a single resonator is used. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
333, Wave Transmission Lines and Networks, subclasses 213+ for positive or negative reactance networks of the active element type and subclass 235 for resonators of the distributed parameter type which may be mechanically and/or electrically connected together to form a tuner. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
335, Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets, subclasses 209+ for magnets and electromagnets.
336, Inductor Devices, appropriate subclasses for inductors, per se, which may have a fixed or variable inductance value.
336, Inductor Devices, appropriate subclasses for inductor devices of the type which are adapted to be combined with some capacitor means to form a tuned circuit. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
338, Electrical Resistors, appropriate subclasses for resistors, per se, which may be closely analogous to certain types of tuners.
338, Electrical Resistors, appropriate subclasses for resistor elements which may be used in combination with an inductor and capacitor means to form a tuned circuit. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
340, Communications: Electrical, subclasses 825+ for selective remote control system; and subclasses 825.69 and 825.72 for systems having a control signal utilized to control a remotely located system or device.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclasses 825.69 and 825.72 for systems having a control signal used for control purposes. (See"Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
343, Communications: Radio Wave Antennas, subclasses 745+ for an antenna having variable reactance for tuning, and subclasses 850+ for antennas with a coupling network or impedance in the lead-in.
343, Communications: Radio Wave Antennas, appropriate subclasses for radio wave energy systems utilizing tuned circuits, subclass 745 for antennae with variable reactance means for tuning the antenna. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices" above.)
346, Recorders, subclass 37 for a recorder device combined with and responsive to the tuning 346, Recorders, subclass 37 for recording means which is responsive to the tuning means of a radio receiver. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices above).
348, Television, subclasses 731+ for tuners associated with television receiver circuitry including search tuners and tuners combined with indicator, subclass 734 for remote control of a tuner in a television receiver, and subclass 735 for automatic frequency control circuits.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclass 113 for electrical safety protection systems and devices having a tune circuit; subclass 270 for transformer or inductors combined with a capacitor; and subclasses 271+ for capacitors, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclass 113 for electrical equipment having safety or protection equipment which employs a tuned circuit, and subclasses 161 and 147 for frequency responsive circuits for relays and electromagnets in which the frequency responsive circuit usually has one or more tuned circuits. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 271+ for capacitors, per se, which are used in combination with an inductance means to form a tuner. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above.)
370, Multiplex Communications, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 343+ for combining or distributing information via frequency channels in communication over free space, and subclasses 480+ for combining or distributing information via frequency channels in communication over wire.
370, Multiplex Communications, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 343+ for combining or distributing information via frequency channels in communication over free space, and subclasses 480+ for combining or distributing information via frequency channels in communication over wire. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above.)
373, Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces, subclasses 138+ for electrical induction type furnaces involving a charge supported by an adequate furnace structure and placed in electromagnetic relationship with an inducing winding, the charge forming the secondary of the coil winding. The coil winding may be resonant with a capacitor.
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 120+ for radio transmitters with tuners; and subclasses 150.1+ for receivers with tuners.
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 100+ for a transmitter having a tuner; and subclasses 150.1+ for a receiver having a tuner. (See "Tuners Combined With or Incorporated in Other Devices," above).
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 150.1+ for apparatus such as a housing that may be used with a tuner. (See "Tuner Components and Subcombinations," above).

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

CAPACITOR

That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics used to secure an appreciable capacitance by allowing the storage of electricity when a potential difference exists between the conductors. There must be at least two or more conductors separated by a dielectric.

CAPACITANCE

The property of a capacitor to store and hold an electric charge and which is equivalent to the ratio of the equivalent charge stored in the capacitor to the resultant change of potential.

ELECTROMAGNETIC OPERATOR

A machine or device which is capable of exerting a force upon the control or actuator of an element or circuit to thus move or control the element or circuit, the machine or device being operated by the interaction of the magnetic effect of an electrical current and/or magnetic field. An example, of this type of machine or device is a relay, solenoid or electric motor connected to the shaft of a variable capacitor, the machines or devices responding to a flow of current and/or voltage through them to thus drive or move the shaft of the variable capacitor.

FREQUENCY

The number of complete alternations or cycles made by an alternating signal per unit of time. The frequency unit most used is cycles per second.

FREQUENCY BAND

A plurality of different frequency channels which are grouped together into a particular bunch or group of channels all designated or used for the same purpose. An example of this is the broadcast band which consists of a plurality of frequency channels whose center frequencies are separated by a specified amount, each frequency being used for the same purpose, namely the transmission of speech. A second example of a band of frequencies is the use of certain channels of frequencies for the transmission of television. Here the common purpose of the plural channels of frequencies making up the band is the transmission of a video signal plus an audio signal.

INDICATOR

An element or device which is particularly adapted to point out or show, usually visually, the position and/or condition to which a given element or elements are adjusted as, for example, a scale and pointer, one of which is held stationary while the other is connected to a rotatable or movable shaft such as the shaft of a variable capacitor. A second example would be the use of a meter to indicate the amount of current and/or voltage flowing in a given circuit.

INDUCTANCE

That property of an electrical circuit, or of two or more neighboring circuits, by which a varying current produces or induces an electromotive force in the circuit or neighboring circuits. If an electromotive force is induced in the neighboring circuit or circuits, the term mutual inductance is used.

INDUCTOR

An impedance device comprising a coil means, with or without core means, for introducing inductance into an electric circuit. Both transformers and inductive reactors are included within the meaning of "inductor".

RESONANCE

The point in the adjustment of a tuned circuit to a particular channel or signal frequency at which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance. The resonance frequency may also be described as the point where the oscillation or vibration present in the circuit may be maintained with the least amount of external excitation with the excitation producing a relatively large amplitude of oscillation or vibration.

TUNER

A device for tuning which consists of an inductor and capacitor or an inductor, capacitor and resistor so connected and resistor so connected as to form a resonance circuit, the mean frequency or channel to which the tuner is resonant being variable. The resistance may be in the form of the inherent resistance of the circuit or a lumped resistance element connected in the circuit. For a lumped resistor element connected in a tuned circuit, see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.

TUNING

The step or steps by which a tuner is adjusted in relation to a signal frequency or channel in order to obtain optimum or maximum resonance of the tuner circuit or system at some selected operating point or signal frequency.

VARIABLE INDUCTOR

A passive inductor wherein the inductor device includes a movable element which may be adjusted to different positions or adjusted to vary its physical dimensions to change the effective inductance from one value to another. Examples of such movable elements are: a tap changing switch, a distortable coil or core, or movable coupled coils. Inductor devices designed to change inductance (1) as a function of the current and/or voltage flowing through the inductor winding, or (2) in accordance with a magnetic field or bias applied to the core or coil of the device, or (3) as a function of the ambient temperature or some external condition applied to the device, and wherein no physical element of the inductor is moved to effect such change in inductance, are not considered adjustable under the above definition. For such variable inductors, see Subclass References to the Current Class, above for for magnetic field responsive tuners, for condition responsive tuners, and for saturable core type tuners.

SUBCLASSES

1 COMBINED DIVERSE-TYPE TUNERS
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter wherein the tuning unit consists of two or more tuners of different types connected together either mechanically and/or electrically to form a single unitary tuner. (1) Note. One tuner usually covers a lower frequency while the second tuner cover a higher frequency as, for example, a VHF-UHF tuner. Gang operated or combined tuners which cover only one frequency range, such as for example an intermediate frequency tuning strip, is not considered a combined tuner for this class.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 10.45 for operators used on plural shafts.
455, Telecommunications, appropriate subclasses for radio receivers which may use a plurality of tuning means.


2 With plural diverse disk or plural diverse cylinder-type turret tuners
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Subject matter wherein the combined tuners comprise at least two different disk type or two different cylinder type tuners. (1) Note. For a definition of a disk type tuner see subclass 49 below and for a definition of a cylinder type tuner see subclass 50 below.
(2) Note. The combination of a disk or cylinder type tuner combined with another type tuner such as, for example, a wafer switch or resonant line tuner are not properly classified in this subclass. This subclass is restricted to tuning units in which only at least two species of disk or two species of cylinder type tuners are combined to form the tuning unit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

49, for disk type tuners, per se.
50, for cylinder type tuners, per se.


3 With mutual tuning element
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Subject matter wherein a plurality of tuning units are mechanically and/or electrically built together, each of the tuning units mutually sharing a common tuning element with the tuning units being so constructed that they are operated in sequence one after the other by adjusting the common tuning element. (1) Note. Subject matter usually found in this subclass consists of a cavity or resonator type tuner mechanically and/or electrically combined with an inductor-capacitor type tuning unit, the plunger or contact used to tune the cavity or resonator also being used to tune the inductor-capacitor type tuning unit. Thus the tuning element is mutually common to both type tuners.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

41+, for tuners of the resonant line or distributed parameter type.
65+, for tuners in which both the inductor and capacitor are variable and especially subclasses 66+ for tuners with a mutual inductor and capacitor varying element.


4 MAGNETIC FIELD-RESPONSIVE TUNER
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter wherein the tuned circuit is responsive to and varied by an external magnetic field applied to the tuned circuit or some element thereof. For example, the magnetic field is produced by a specially movable permanent magnet.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

11, for tuners having a capacitor which is responsive to voltage or current variations.
12+, for tuners having a saturable core type inductor which is responsive to voltage or current variations.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323, Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems, subclasses 250 , 330, and 362 for miscellaneous inductive reactance systems where the reactor includes a permanent magnet as a part thereof.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 110 for inductors which are provided with a permanent magnet to modify the magnetic flux distribution.


5 CONDITION-RESPONSIVE (E.G., TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION)
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter including a tuner, which has at least one variable element that is mechanically variable, linked with actuating structure which senses and responds significantly well to a particular stimulus or condition which is external of the electrical circuit or a change in such external stimulus or condition to thereby cause the variable element to change, adjust or correct the resonant frequency of the tuned circuit; or including a tuner which has at least one variable element which is nonmechanically variable and which has the property, as by chemical composition, of changing its reactance value in response to a particular stimulus or condition which is external of the electrical circuit or a change in such external stimulus or condition to thereby cause a change, adjustment or correction in the resonant frequency of the tuned circuit. (1) Note. For classification here the actuator must be something more than merely adapted to have a force applied thereto for the actuation of the mechanical variable or adjustable tuner, as a knob, pedal or handle. The actuator must sense the condition or change in condition, and respond in some manner as by moving or deforming.
(2) Note. The tuner element that is affected by the particular external stimulus does not necessarily have to detune the tuner from a particular resonant frequency upon sensing the external stimulus but may adjust or correct the tuned circuit to prevent undesired drifting or change in the resonant frequency of the tuned circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4, for tuners which are responsive to and varied by a magnetic field applied to the tuned circuit or some element thereof.
11, for tuners having a capacitor which is responsive to voltage or current variations within the electrical circuit.
12+, for tuners having a saturable core type inductor which is responsive to voltage or current variations within the electrical circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

331, Oscillators, subclasses 175+ for oscillators combined with frequency stabilizing means.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for inductors with condition responsive adjustment means.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclasses 13+ for resistors that are responsive to a condition.


6 With condition-responsive inductor or capacitor
This subclass is indented under subclass 5. Subject matter wherein the tuner includes an inductor and/or capacitor which is responsive to some external stimulus.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

331, Oscillators, subclasses 65+ for oscillators which have a device responsive to an external physical condition, and subclass 176 for temperature or current responsive means in the oscillator circuit.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for inductors with condition responsive adjustment means.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 280+ for capacitors, per se, which are responsive to a condition.


7 PUSH BUTTON AND/OR LEVER-TYPE MECHANICALLY OPERATED TUNER
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter wherein the tuner unit is adapted to be operated by a series of manually movable push buttons and/or levers with each button or lever being adapted to selectively move the tuning element through a mechanical mechanism to a different preselected position or frequency when manual power is exerted on a particular button or lever. (1) Note. Push buttons and/or levers which energize a motor circuit with the motor furnishing the power to move the tuner to the preselected circuit are not classified in this subclass but in subclasses 17+ below (note especially subclass 29).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

29, for tuners combined with electromagnetic drive means which tunes to a predetermined station and which may be energized by a push button or lever type switch.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclasses 10.1+ for shaft operators of the radio type which are adapted to turn to or stop on a predetermined position, and subclasses 469+ for control lever and linkage systems, per se.
84, Music, subclasses 423+ for keyboard operated musical devices, the keys serving to select the tuned circuit which is to be placed into circuit with an electrical tone generator.
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 170.1+ for radio receivers utilizing push button and/or lever operated tuners.


8 REMOTELY CONTROLLED TUNER
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter in which the operation of the tuner is controlled from a relatively distant point removed from the tuner by an extended or remote control device or circuit. (1) Note. Remote control devices as found in this subclass may include a tuner having a separate extended control shaft connected to an original shaft of the variable tuner element, thus extending the distance from the tuner to the point where a control knob or operator may be located; or the remote control device may consist of circuit means responsive to space transmitted electromagnetic, electrostatic or radiant energy.
(2) Note. To be properly classified in this subclass, some significant details of the tuner must be claimed. A tuner broadly recited with details to the control system or device is classified with the control system or device. The control of a tuner plus some other radio circuit, such as, for example, an on-off switch is classified with the radio circuit controlled, such as, for example, radio receivers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclasses 10+ for positioning or rotating means for one or more shafts of an electronic tuning device such as a radio tuner.
307, Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems, subclass 140 for remote control switching systems.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclass 16 for motors which are controlled or supplied by space transmitted electromagnetic or electrostatic energy; subclass 460 for sound or vibration responsive systems, and subclass 480 for radiant energy responsive systems.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclasses 825+ for selective remote control systems.
343, Communications: Radio Wave Antennas, subclasses 745+ for antennae with a variable reactance for tuning the antenna.
348, Television, subclass 734 for television receiver circuitry having remote control means associated therewith.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 173+ for photosensitive circuits for relays and electromagnets.
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 151.1+ and 352+ for radio receivers with remote control.


9 With electromagnetic operator
This subclass is indented under subclass 8. Subject matter in which the remote controlled tuner has an electromagnetic operator, such as an electric motor, solenoid, or the like.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

17+, for tuning units with electromagnetic operators which are not remotely controlled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclass 16 for motors which are controlled or supplied by space transmitted electromagnetic or electrostatic energy; subclasses 560+, for electric motor position servomechanism; subclasses 460+ for sound or vibration responsive systems, and subclass 480 for radiant energy responsive motor systems.
455, Telecommunications, appropriate subclasses.


10 Solenoid or relay operator
This subclass is indented under subclass 9. Subject matter in which the electromagnetic operator is a solenoid and/or relay device.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19, for band scanning or selector circuit driven by a solenoid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclasses 14 , 24+, 30+, and 34+ for solenoid motor structure, per se, and subclass 49 for step-by-step magnetic motor structure.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 37 and 119+ for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems and subclasses 38 and 138 for linear movement electric motor systems.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 139+ for electric circuits for relays and electromagnets.


11 TUNER UNIT DIRECTLY RESPONSIVE TO VOLTAGE AND/OR CURRENT VARIATION
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter wherein the tuned circuit includes a reactance element or elements which are directly responsive to a change in voltage and/or current which is applied across or through the reactance element or elements, with the variation in the voltage and/or current causing the reactance value of the element or elements to vary or change and thereby tune or adjust the resonance of the tuned circuit.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4, for tuners which are responsive to an external magnetic field, e.g., the magnetic field is that of a spatially movable permanent magnet.
5+, for tuners which are responsive to an external nonelectrical stimulus or condition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), appropriate subclasses for active solid-state devices, per se.
307, Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems, subclasses 401+ for miscellaneous nonlinear reactor systems.
330, Amplifiers, subclass 145 for amplifiers having variable impedance elements which are directly responsive to voltage or current variations.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 277+ for variable capacitors, per se.
455, Telecommunications, appropriate subclasses.


12 Saturable core-type inductor
This subclass is indented under subclass 11. Subject matter wherein the inductor element is variable in response to current flow through the inductor winding or in response to a magnetic field or bias applied to the core element.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323, Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems, subclasses 206 , 214, 249, 302, 310, and 329 for saturable core inductor systems in general.
331, Oscillators, subclass 181 for oscillators having frequency adjusting means which may be of the saturable core inductor type.
332, Modulators, appropriate subclasses and particularly subclass 173 for modulators having variable circuit parameters which may be a saturable core device.
333, Wave Transmission Lines and Networks, subclasses 177+ for transformer coupled wave filters having a magnetic core which may be saturable.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 155 for inductor devices, per se, which are responsive to current flow therethrough. See also the Search Notes for a complete field of search as to current responsive inductance devices.


13 Automatic frequency-centering circuit
This subclass is indented under subclass 12. Subject matter wherein the change in the reactance value of the saturable core type inductance element is controlled by circuit means which is responsive to an undesired change in frequency occurring in the tuned circuit, the circuit means thereby varying the resonant frequency of the tuned circuit a sufficient amount to compensate for the undesired frequency shift.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

16, for automatic frequency controlled tuner circuits having a reactance tuning means.
26+, for automatic frequency centering circuits which have an electromagnetic operator driving the tuning element.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

331, Oscillators, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclass 36 , for automatic frequency controlled oscillators which may utilize a saturable inductor.


14 Reactance tuning
This subclass is indented under subclass 11. Subject matter in which an active element is operated in such a manner that it presents the characteristics of a variable reactance to the rest of the tuned circuit.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

331, Oscillators, subclass 180 for oscillators in which the variable frequency determining element consists of an active element type reactance tube.
332, Modulators, subclasses 140 and 142+ for reactance tubes in frequency modulators and 147+ for reactance tubes in phase modulators.
333, Wave Transmission Lines and Networks, subclasses 213+ for reactance tube systems, per se.


15 Semiconductor reactance circuit
This subclass is indented under subclass 14. Subject matter in which the active element is a semiconductor device.

16 Automatic frequency-centering circuit
This subclass is indented under subclass 14. Subject matter in which the variable reactance tuner is provided with control means for automatically tuning the resonant circuit to its optimum operating point and to maintain the circuit at that point by regulating the adjustment of the variable reactance tuner to compensate for variations in the tuned circuit or in the frequency of the signal wave to which the circuit is tuned.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

13, for automatic frequency controlled saturable core type inductor tuning elements.
26+, for automatic frequency centering circuits having an electromagnetic operator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

331, Oscillators, subclass 36 for oscillators with frequency control means which may be a reactance tube.
455, Telecommunications, appropriate subclasses.


17 TUNER UNIT WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC OPERATOR
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter in which the tuned circuit consists of at least one variable reactance tuning unit which is adapted to have its reactance adjusted so as to vary the resonance of the tuner, the adjustable reactance tuning unit being driven by an electromagnetic operator which is mechanically connected to the variable tuning unit. (1) Note. The reactance tuning may be driven directly or indirectly by the electromagnetic operator. An example of an indirectly driven reactance tuning unit is where the electromagnetic operator is energized periodically and during these periods loads or winds an energy storage device such as a spring so that during the period when the electromagnetic operator is not energized, the energy storage device will furnish power to drive the variable reactance tuning unit.
(2) Note. To be properly classified in this subclass significant details of the tuner must be disclosed and claimed. The mere recitation of a tuner broadly with details to the electromagnetic operator or control system for the operator will be classified with the operator or system.
(3) Note. Switch type tuners are considered as variable reactance tuning units for classification in this and indented subclasses.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9+, for electromagnetic operated tuners which are remotely controlled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, appropriate subclasses for electrical generator or motor structure, per se.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclasses for electromagnetic operators with control systems, per se.
455, Telecommunications, appropriate subclasses.


18 Band scanning or selector circuit
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Subject matter in which the electromagnetic operator is provided with a control system and/or means which causes the operator to drive the variable tuning unit in such a manner as to scan a frequency or band of frequencies with the control system and/or means acting upon the electromagnetic operator or its associated circuit to stop the scanning of the tuner unit when the tuner is properly adjusted to receive a given signal or signals. (1) Note. Subject matter found in this subclass and the indented subclasses usually consists of a tuning system with a driving means which causes the tuner to scan the frequency band and when a radio signal is tuned in, a control voltage is applied to the means to deenergize the driving means and the tuner is stopped on the frequency of the radio signal. Tuners where the operator is connected to and energized by a switch which represents a particular frequency, the operation of the switch causing the operator to drive the tuner to and stop on the selected frequency, is not classified in this subclass but in subclass 29 below.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclasses 445+ for electromagnetic operator with control systems for automatically starting and/or stopping.


19 Solenoid or relay-operated tuner means
This subclass is indented under subclass 18. Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic operator which furnishes the drive for the variable tuning unit is a solenoid and/or relay device. (1) Note. The solenoid may periodically act to load an energy storage device such as, for example, a spring with the energy storage device then acting to drive the variable tuning element. In these cases, the solenoid is considered to have furnished the drive for the variable tuner and the subject matter is properly classifiable in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

10+, for tuners which are remotely controlled and use a solenoid as a driver means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclasses 14 , 23+, 30, and 34+ for solenoid motor structure, per se.
335, Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets, subclasses 220+ for magneto-mechanical motive devices.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 139+ for electric circuits for relays and electromagnets.
455, Telecommunications, subclasses 170.1+ for receivers with frequency selective means (i.e., tuners) with solenoid or relay means.


20 Motor-operated
This subclass is indented under subclass 18. Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic operator is a motor of the rotating armature type. (1) Note. Motors of the reciprocating or oscillating type are classified in subclass 18 above if they are driving a band scanning or selector circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9, for remote controlled tuners which may use an electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclass for motor control systems, per se.


21 Predetermined frequency selector
This subclass is indented under subclass 20. Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic operator is provided with a control system and/or means to select and tune the variable tuning unit to a predetermined position thereby adjusting the tuner to resonate at a particular mean frequency.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

7, for push button and/or lever operated tuners which are mechanically adjusted by the pressure exerted upon the button and/or lever to select or position a tuning element in a particular position.
9+, for remote controlled electromagnetic operators which may stop on a predetermined frequency such as, for example, a remotely controlled television tuner.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 466+ for motors having control systems that stop the motor at a particular position.


22 With reversing means
This subclass is indented under subclass 20. Subject matter wherein the motor is connected to means for reversing the direction in which the motor is driving the tuner element.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 65 and 280+ for motor systems connected to a motor-reversing circuit.


23 Clutch means
This subclass is indented under subclass 20. Subject matter wherein the motor is connected to the variable tuning unit through a clutch device which is operated by the motor control circuit.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

192, Clutches and Power-Stop Control, appropriate subclasses for clutches and power-stop controls, per se, and especially subclass .02 for interrelated electric motor and clutch controls.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclasses 92+ for electrical controlled torque-transmitting clutches or brakes.


24 Relay-controlled
This subclass is indented under subclass 20. Subject matter wherein the motor is controlled by a relay device.
SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclasses 139+ for electric circuits for relays and electromagnets.


25 Plural relays
This subclass is indented under subclass 24. Subject matter in which plural relays are used to control the motor circuit.

26 Automatic frequency-centering circuit
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Subject matter in which the electromagnetic operator is provided with a linkage device for connecting the operator to a variable tuning unit of a resonant circuit and a control means for automatically operating the electromagnetic operator so as to tune the resonant circuit to its optimum operating point and to maintain the circuit at that point by regulating the adjustment of the variable tuning unit to compensate for variations in the tuned circuit or in the frequency of the signal wave to which the circuit is tuned.
SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

13, for automatic frequency controlled saturable core type tuning elements.
16, for automatic frequency centering circuits of the reactance tube type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclasses 445+ for automatic motor starting and/or stopping means.
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, subclass 32 for dynamoelectric generator systems with frequency responsive devices or networks for automatically maintaining the frequency of the generator wave constant.
331, Oscillators, subclasses 1+ for oscillators having automatic frequency stabilization using a phase or frequency sensing means.
332, Modulators, subclasses 123+ for controlling an average condition in a frequency modulator and subclasses 155+ and 159+ for controlling an average condition in an amplitude modulator.
455, Telecommunications, subclass 125 for radio transmitters which may utilize a.f.c. circuits and subclasses 257+ for receivers with a.f.c. circuits.


27 Tool-driven aligning apparatus
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Subject matter in which the linkage device between the electromagnetic operator and variable tuning unit is a mechanical coupling element or tool which is adapted to be connected to or disconnected from the tuning element. (1) Note. Subject matter usually found in this subclass consists of motor circuits which drive alignment tools such as, for example, a screwdriver which may be connected to the tuner element of a tuned circuit, the motor circuit then adjusts the resonance of the circuit to some preset value. Such tool driven aligning apparatus find particular use in production line tuning of a large number of tuned circuits.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 600+ for measuring and testing impedance, admittance and related quantities.
330, Amplifiers, subclass 2 for amplifiers with condition indicating or testing means.


28 Plural signal sources
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Subject matter in which the electromagnetic operator control circuit is responsive to or requires two or more signal sources in order to properly center the resonant circuit. (1) Note. Subject matter usually found in this subclass consists of circuits which have an information and test signal both applied to the electromagnetic operator control circuit so that the tuned circuit is properly adjusted to the desired resonant frequency.


29 Predetermined center frequency selector (e.g., push-button control)
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic operator is connected to or controlled by a position or sensing means which acts to position the variable reactance tuning unit in a predetermined position upon being actuated. (1) Note. The motor control circuit is usually energized by a plurality of push button switches with each of the switches representing a preselected frequency (i.e., a television tuner driven by a motor). The motor once energized drives the tuner element to the proper position to tune in the desired frequency and then the motor is automatically turned off.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

7, for push button and/or lever operated tuners of the mechanical type which may tune in predetermined frequencies.
21, for motor operated band scanning or selector circuits which selects a predetermined frequency such as, for example, the strongest signal found within the band scanned.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclasses 466+ for motor systems with movement, position or limit-of-travel sensing means. Also see subclasses 560+, for position servomechanisms.


30 WITH RESONANCE INDICATOR
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter wherein the tuner is combined with some form of electrical indicator which operates in such a manner as to give an indication of whether or not the tuned circuit is tuned for maximum output signal strength or peak resonance. (1) Note. Subject matter found in this and the indented subclasses properly includes a frequency or phase demodulator with or without some detail tuning structure together with detailed tuning indicating structure provided the output from the frequency or phase demodulator is applied only to the indicating means. Details of a frequency or phase demodulator which have an output applied to other circuitry than the indicating means or where the indicating means is only claimed broadly in combination with a demodulator, classification is in Class 329, Demodulators and Detectors, subclass 111. See also (2) Note under Class 329, subclass 111.

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For research request.. you can just post it here at our Knowledge Resource Center. Para copy paste niyo nalang di na kayo mag waste ng time in researching Blue_PDT_01_19

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tanom
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ito pa.. ang haba...nakss

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ang haba nga naksSS!

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tanom
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Post Reply with quote
waaaaaaaaaaaaaaa.. JEHZ.. naks ka dyan!

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ice
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Post Reply with quote
Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12

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tanom
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Post Reply with quote
ice wrote:
Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12


waaaaaaaaaaaa.. nahawa na kay TANOM.. nyahahah

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ice
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Post Reply with quote
contagious Kuto kasi si Tanom Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12

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tanom
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ice wrote:
contagious Kuto kasi si Tanom Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12

ganoon pala ako? ahjejejejej.... kawawa talga me!

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parang sapat?

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tanom
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ferdinand_lozada wrote:
parang sapat?

anong sapat? hmmm!?

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ice
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tanom wrote:
ferdinand_lozada wrote:
parang sapat?

anong sapat? hmmm!?



uu nga anong sapat???

Blue_PDT_01_12

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tanom
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hay! walang sumagot.,...saan ba tong ferdie na to! aheheh

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ice
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Post Reply with quote
tanom wrote:
hay! walang sumagot.,...saan ba tong ferdie na to! aheheh



baka sapat sa kuto? or un information ay sapat?
hay busy ata un mga company nila ... una si Sarry nawala ngayon ata pati na si Ferdi... hay!!!
Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12 Blue_PDT_01_12

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tanom
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Post Reply with quote
hay nako.. tayo nalang nagpapabuhay sa forum na to..grrrrrrrrr!

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